This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1922 edition. Excerpt: ...have the railways, the industrial enterprises, and the complete economic and military control. The Chinese viceroy could not remain in power a week if he were displeasing to the Japanese, which, however, he takes care not to be. (See Note A.) The same situation was being brought about in Shantung. 'Shantung brings us to what Japan did in the Great War. In 1914, China could easily have been induced to join the allies and to set to work to turn the Germans out of Kiao-Chow, but this did not suit the Japanese, who undertook the work themselves and insisted upon the Chinese remaining neutral (until 1917). Having captured Tsing-tau, they presented to the Chinese the famous Twenty-one Demands, which gave the Chinese Question its modern form. These demands, as originally presented in January, 1915, consisted of five groups. The first dealt with Shantung, demanding that China should agree in advance to whatever terms Japan might ultimately make with Germany as regarded this Chinese province, that the Japanese should have the right to construct certain specified railways, and that certain ports (unspecified) should be opened to trade; also that no privileges in Shantung should be granted to any power other than Japan. The second group concerns South Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, and demands what is in effect a protectorate, with control of railways, complete economic freedom for Japanese enterprise, and exclusion of all other foreign industrial enterprise. The third group gives Japan a monopoly of the mines and iron and steel works in a certain region of the Yangtze,1 where we claim a sphere of influence. The fourth group consists of a single demand, that China shall not cede any harbor, bay or island to any power except Japan. The fifth group,...
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This study of the history of China, its social forces and tendencies and the character of its people, was originally published in 1922, following the author's return from a year as Professor of Philosophy at the University of Beijing. Although much has happened in the years that have intervened, the book still has great value and interest for all who are concerned to understand China and her future amongst the major nations of the world. It contains much interesting historical analysis which is very relevant today, and some extraordinarily far-sighted observations. For this reason a reprint has been felt desirable and it has been left unchanged. If in part it may reveal a record of dead hopes and dead fears, those parts which are not topical are still true; and, having regard to China's rapid growth in industrial and international power, those permanent elements of the book cannot be neglected either by the student of international affairs or by the general reader.About the Author :
Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) was born in England and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. His long career established him as one of the most influential philosophers, mathematicians, and social reformers of the twentieth century.
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