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Dr. Ronald Youngblood is a graduate of Valparaiso University (BA), Fuller Theological Seminary (BD), and the Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning (PhD). He has served as professor of Old Testament at Bethel Seminary in St. Paul, Wheaton Graduate School, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, and Bethel Seminary in San Diego, and is currently serving in the same capacity at International College and Graduate School in Honolulu. He is an associate editor of the NIV Study Bible; author of 1 and 2 Samuel in the Expositor's Bible Commentary series; and a co-translator and co-editor of the Holy Bible, New International Version. He has also edited and/or written ten other volumes, including Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, for which he was awarded the Gold Medallion Book Award by the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association. He serves as chairman of the board of directors of International Bible Society and frequently engages in preaching and teaching ministries at home?Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved. :
TITLE The first phrase in the Hebrew text of 1:1 is bereshith ('In [the] beginning'), which is also the Hebrew title of the book (books in ancient times customarily were named after their first word or two). The English title, Genesis, is Greek in origin and comes from the word geneseos, which appears in the pre-Christian Greek translation (Septuagint) of 2:4; 5:1. Depending on its context, the word can mean 'birth,' 'genealogy,' or 'history of origin.' In both its Hebrew and Greek forms, then, the traditional title of Genesis appropriately describes its content, since it is primarily a book of beginnings. BACKGROUND B Chs. 1--38 reflect a great deal of what we know from other sources about ancient Mesopotamian life and culture. Creation, genealogies, destructive floods, geography and mapmaking, construction techniques, migrations of peoples, sale and purchase of land, legal customs and procedures, sheepherding and cattleraising--- all these subjects and many others were matters of vital concern to the peoples of Mesopotamia during this time. They were also of interest to the individuals, families and tribes whom we read about in the first 38 chapters of Genesis. The author appears to locate Eden, humankind's first home, in or near Mesopotamia; the tower of Babel was built there; Abram was born there; Isaac took a wife from there; and Jacob lived there for 20 years. Although these patriarchs settled in Canaan, their original homeland was Mesopotamia. The closest ancient literary parallels to Ge 1--38 also come from Mesopotamia. Enuma elish, the story of the god Marduk's rise to supremacy in the Babylonian pantheon, is similar in some respects (though thoroughly mythical and polytheistic) to the Ge 1 creation account. Some of the features of certain king lists from Sumer bear striking resemblance to the genealogy in Ge 5. The 11th tablet of the Gilgamesh epic is quite similar in outline to the flood narrative in Ge 6--8. Several of the major events of Ge 1--8 are narrated in the same order as similar events in the Atrahasis epic. In fact, the latter features the same basic motif of creation-alienation-flood as the Biblical account. Clay tablets found in 1974 at the ancient (c. 2500--2300 B.C.) site of Ebla (modern Tell Mardikh) in northern Syria may also contain some intriguing parallels (see chart, p. xxiii). Two other important sets of documents demonstrate the reflection of Mesopotamia in the first 38 chapters of Genesis. From the Mari letters (see chart, p. xxiv), dating from the patriarchal period, we learn that the names of the patriarchs (including especially Abram, Jacob and Job) were typical of that time. The letters also clearly illustrate the freedom of travel that was possible between various parts of the Amorite world in which the patriarchs lived. The Nuzi tablets (see chart, p. xxiv), though a few centuries later than the patriarchal period, shed light on patriarchal customs, which tended to survive virtually intact for many centuries. The inheritance right of an adopted household member or slave (see 15:1--4), the obligation of a barren wife to furnish her husband with sons through a servant girl (see 16:2--4), strictures against expelling such a servant girl and her son (see 21:10--11), the authority of oral statements in ancient Near Eastern law, such as the deathbed bequest (see 27:1--4,22--23,33; 49:28--33)---these and other legal customs, social contracts and provisions are graphically illustrated in Mesopotamian documents. GENESIS INTRODUCTION KEY APPLICATION FOR LIVING BACKGROUND NOTES CHARACTER INFORMATION B As Ge 1--38 is Mesopotamian in character and background, so chs. 39--50 reflect Egyptian influence---though in not quite so direct a way. Examples of such influence are: Egyptian grape cultivation (40:9--11), the riverside scene (ch. 41), Egypt as Canaan's breadbasket (ch. 42), Canaan as the source of numerous products for Egyptian consumption (ch. 43), Egyptian religious and social customs (the end of chs. 43; 46), Egyptian administrative procedures (ch. 47), Egyptian funerary practices (ch. 50) and several Egyptian words and names used throughout these chapters. The closest specific literary parallel from Egypt is the Tale of Two Brothers, which bears some resemblance to the story of Joseph and Potiphar's wife (ch. 39). Egyptian autobiographical narratives (such as the Story of Sinuhe and the Report of Wenamun) and certain historical legends offer more general literary parallels. AUTHOR AND DATE OF WRITING Historically, Jews and Christians alike have held that Moses was the author/compiler of the first five books of the OT.
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Description du livre Zondervan, 2006. Hardcover. État : New. N° de réf. du libraire P110310934818
Description du livre Zondervan, 2006. Hardcover. État : New. book. N° de réf. du libraire 310934818