The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin

9781235299148: The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin

1920. . : ... second and third persons singular of the subjunctive the analogical proportion stands: vofiev veTt :veiS ve i = Xvuptv Xurjre :xutjs Xujj. Since the inducing forms, Xuets and Xuei, contained, not diphthongs, but simple vowels of the quality which appeared elsewhere in the paradigm (pp. 124 ff.), the restored subjunctive forms contained, not 77i, but a monophthong of the same quality as that of the second person plural. Consequently we find very frequently such subjunctives as 8odrj, P. Petr. ii. 2. 1. 10 (260 B.C.). The frequent spelling with 77i in the subjunctive forms of late inscriptions and papyri is due in part to the influence of old documents with 77i in these forms but chiefly to the fact that the corresponding indicative forms were written with the digraph ei. The diphthongs ai and «i, and also the restored 77i, lost their second element at various times in different parts of the Greek world. In Attica the loss occurred not far from 200 B.C.1 The change is reflected in the form of Greek loan-words in Latin; Thraex, tragoedus, etc., were borrowed in early times, while Thrax, Thracia, odeum are later forms. We have the explicit testimony of Strabo that i was silent in the dative singular (of the first and second declensions, of course): xiv. p. 648: Towoi yap x^pis rov i ypavaiKrjv alrlav obK exov.2 In the fifth century 77i, ai, and wi were all true diphthongs, and at and wt remained such in the fourth 1 Meisterhans-Schwyzer, p. 67. 2" For many write the datives without the i, and reject the custom (of writing them) which has no basis in nature." century. The first member of each was probably long and of the same quality as when monophthongal. Hence wi, rather than 01, was similar to English oi in oil. AY, HY, and QY In long diphthongs, as in short, v as final member was no doubt a normal u. There was a tendency in historic as in prehistoric Greek for long diphthongs to sho...

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