In the past there lived several humanoids, but only one species has survived, the modern man or Homo sapiens. They came from Africa and arrived in Europe 40,000 years ago. The Neanderthal lived there for hundreds and thousands of years, but 30,000 years ago they disappeared. Did they suddenly become extinct or were they exterminated by modern humans? The Neanderthal had larger brains than we do, but the unique characteristics of our modern brain made it possible for us to survive, while the former inhabitants of Europe disappeared. What makes our brains so unique? The recent studies in neuroscience begin to answer this question. The author graduated cum laude in 1968 with a doctoral in psychology from the University of Utrecht. He graduated in 1981. After that, he was a professor at the Universities of Leiden and Utrecht. He has published scientific journals in the field of neuroscience. He wrote many chapters in books, articles in newspapers and magazines, and worked on television and radio programs. After his retirement, he was a guest at the University of Utrecht.
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