Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The ancient world lacked standardized practices of forensic science, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials relied on oaths, forced confessions and witness testimony. In a time when a distinction between science and such phenomena as religion, magic and superstition had not yet been made, some civilizations used practices such as the trial by ordeal to determine guilt or innocence. However, ancient sources contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow the concepts of forensic science that were made possible by the Scientific Revolution centuries later. Predating the scientific method, these techniques were not based on a scientific understanding of the world in the modern sense, but rather on common sense and practical experience. On the other hand, the development of an accurate way of measuring density by Archimedes marks a watershed in the use of objective methods, not just in forensics but also in physical science.
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