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The Orexin/hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology (Hardback)

Seiji Nishino, Takeshi Sakurai

Edité par Humana Press Inc., United States, 2005
ISBN 10: 1588294447 / ISBN 13: 9781588294449
Neuf(s) / Hardback / Quantité : 1
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Titre : The Orexin/hypocretin System: Physiology and...

Éditeur : Humana Press Inc., United States

Date d'édition : 2005

Reliure : Hardback

Etat du livre : New

Edition : 2005 ed..

Description :

Language: English . Brand New Book. Orexin/hypocretin research began in 1998, as a result of the discovery of a new hypothalamic neuropeptide. In 1999, it was found that mutations in the orexin/ hypocretin-related genes caused a sleep disorder (narcolepsy) in dogs and mice. These findings were soon followed by the discoveries of orexin/hypocretin ligand deficiency in human narcolepsy. The finding of the major pathophysiological mechanisms of human narcolepsy resulted in its reclassification as a neurological, not a psychiatric, disorder. The - portance of early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for human narcolepsy has been repeatedly emphasized because the disease typically starts around puberty (when social and school influences become important). Orexin/hypocretin de- ciency in narcolepsy subjects can be detected clinically in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin/hypocretin measures (low CSF orexin/hypocretin levels are strongly asso- ated with narcolepsy-cataplexy among various neurologic and sleep disorders). Thus, the CSF orexin/hypocretin measurements are expected to be included as a diagnostic test for narcolepsy-cataplexy in the second revision of international di- nostic criteria (ICSD). This positive diagnostic test is very useful for establishing an early diagnosis for narcolepsy-cataplexy, and many patients will likely receive im- diate benefits. Cerebrospinal orexin/hypocretin measurements are also informative for the nosological classification of hypersomnia. Because orexin/hypocretin de- ciency is observed in most human narcolepsy-cataplexy, orexin/hypocretin repla- ment therapy is now a promising new choice for the treatment of human narcolepsy, and research in this area is actively in progress. N° de réf. du libraire LIB9781588294449

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Synopsis : Orexin/hypocretin research began in 1998, as a result of the discovery of a new hypothalamic neuropeptide. In 1999, it was found that mutations in the orexin/ hypocretin-related genes caused a sleep disorder (narcolepsy) in dogs and mice. These findings were soon followed by the discoveries of orexin/hypocretin ligand deficiency in human narcolepsy. The finding of the major pathophysiological mechanisms of human narcolepsy resulted in its reclassification as a neurological, not a psychiatric, disorder. The - portance of early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for human narcolepsy has been repeatedly emphasized because the disease typically starts around puberty (when social and school influences become important). Orexin/hypocretin de- ciency in narcolepsy subjects can be detected clinically in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) orexin/hypocretin measures (low CSF orexin/hypocretin levels are strongly asso- ated with narcolepsy?cataplexy among various neurologic and sleep disorders). Thus, the CSF orexin/hypocretin measurements are expected to be included as a diagnostic test for narcolepsy?cataplexy in the second revision of international di- nostic criteria (ICSD). This positive diagnostic test is very useful for establishing an early diagnosis for narcolepsy?cataplexy, and many patients will likely receive im- diate benefits. Cerebrospinal orexin/hypocretin measurements are also informative for the nosological classification of hypersomnia. Because orexin/hypocretin de- ciency is observed in most human narcolepsy?cataplexy, orexin/hypocretin repla- ment therapy is now a promising new choice for the treatment of human narcolepsy, and research in this area is actively in progress.

Synopsis: This cutting-edge review of the orexin/hypocretin system sets the stage for advanced research on the pathological mechanisms underlying the loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons in humans, regulation of sleep and wakefulness by the orexin/hypocretin system, and the role of the orexin/hypocretin system in many other physiological processes, including feeding, autonomic regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation. Topics of interest include assessment of functions and the physiology of orexin/hypocretin, its pathophysiology in human narcolepsy-cataplexy, and possible treatments and pharmacology. The authors also introduce several experimental methods for orexin/hypocretin research, and, using multidisciplinary approaches, explain their uses and limitations.

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